Xing-liu Jiang, Zhi-jian Liu
Science School, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract: The universe is made up largely of the mysterious dark energy; one of the candidates of the dark energy is certainly zero point energy (ZPE). Sonoluminescence phenomena can be explained by the processes of tapping the ZPE, as energy extraction from vacuum. It is well known that phenomena of electrical discharge always lead to transient energy concentration temporally and spatially. Highly localized nuclear activation in electrochemical systems and other electrical discharge processes have been observed by many laboratories in the world. Based on the theory of quantum radiation observed as sonoluminescence, anisotopic behaviors of radiation products, burst character, “heat after death” of excess energy release in electrical discharge systems are considered to be interpreted by the torsion coherence of vortex dynamics with the zero-point energy induced by localized intense field emission of micro-protrusion of the cathode, and the dynamic Casimir effect of transient evolution of triple region of gas, liquid solution, and electrode protrusion. The hypothesis of vortex dynamics is compatible with all published data and explains the peculiarities of excess heat and anomalous nuclear reactions in the nonequilibrium systems.
The paper entitled by “Breakthrough of this year” of Science , confirms that the universe is made up largely of mysterious dark energy, and has a firm age and a precise speed of expansion. Scientists are no longer trying to confirm the existence of dark energy; now they are trying to find out what it’s made of, and it tells us about the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the candidates of the dark energy is certainly zero point energy (ZPE). The experimental evidence of ZPE is: 1) the Casimir effect, 2) Van der Waals’ attraction, 3) the Lamb shift, 4) spontaneous emission, 5) diamagnetism, 6) quantum noise, 7) sonoluminescence, 8) microdegree liquid helium，and recently, 9) cosmological antigravity. Awaiting experimental verification is that inertia and gravity are also proofs of ZPE. It is inferred that the phenomena of tapping the ZPE can appear in many transient processes, such as glow discharge, vacuum electrical breakdown, fast laser-target interaction, interface effect of electrolyte and electrode surface, interface diffusion dynamics of grain boundary.
In electrolysis experiments, the freshly opened CR-39 detector chips were attached to the Pd cathode corner. These nuclear tracks can be easy distinguished from background tracks. The exposed CR-39 detectors showed the appearance of unusual diameter tracks that were not observed in background detectors.
Many laboratories in the world have observed nuclear reactions, excess heat and heat after death in electrochemical systems. T. Ohmori et al found that there is no significant difference in the amounts of excess energies between H2O and D2O electrolysis system for the plasma electrolysis . A.G. Lipson et al found that during the electrolysis of thin Pd film cathode on the dielectric substrates as well as Pd-black, the alpha-particles ranging from 11.0-16.0MeV and proton near 1.7MeV are emitted . The transmutation of Sr, Cs into Mo, Pr with 8 mass number and 4 atomic number increases was observed by Y. Iwamura . Nuclear products with high concentration and tracks with highly collimated lines of low energy nuclear reactions in the electrochemical systems were recorded by CR-39 solid detectors and films at our laboratory [5, 6].
The mechanism of such anomalous phenomena is not being well understood according to normally accepted physics. It is supposed to use the concept of torsion field to interpret the observed phenomena, typically, the properties of axial acceleration, memory effect, and the polarized nuclear reactions with torsion effect . A possible semi-quantitative explanation is given by torsion coherence with ZPE of vortex dynamics due to tip effect and transient energy concentration on the cathode surface. The vortex is the assigned workhorse of the universe, which bridges the invisible dark energy and the visible matter.
2. Phenomena in nature and at laboratories
The vortex and spiral structures are the archetype that appears at all levels of nature and laboratories, for example, spin of fundamental particles, atom structure with nuclei and orbiting electrons, vortex lattice in superconductors, superfluid, dense plasma focus, lightning, quasar etc. Transient processes produce non-equilibrium system, therefore, create torsion field with high vorticity. Femtosecond laser pulsed excitation of atomic noble gas cluster produce forward ion kinetic energies with three orders of magnitude higher than expected. In his paper entitled Condensed Matter Nuclear Science , Xing-zhong Li emphasized 3 key factors for such condensed matter nuclear science, they are: the deuterium (or hydrogen) flux, the multi-layer thin-film technique, and the infrared thermal imaging technology. The tip effect of the cathodes in the electrolysis cell appears to enhance those three factors to create one nonlinear system with far from the equilibrium condition.
Recent report of dark matter annihilation at the galactic center describes that the cold dark matter near the galactic center is accreted by the central black hole into a dense spike . Particle dark matter annihilation makes the spike to be a compact source of photons, electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, and neutrinos. It reminds us for that there is a similarity among pitting corrosion with electrochemical noise, laboratory plasma pinching (dense plasma focus, for example), fast laser induced ion beams , and quasar spiral model with high-energy cosmic rays in spiral center in spite of large dimension difference. Comparing the experimental results of electrochemical cells with excess heat and nuclear transmutation to astrophysics phenomena, it is supposed that the investigation of vortex dynamics of torsion coherence with the zero-point energy is essential for tapping the zero-point energy.
As it is predicted by quantum mechanics, the vacuum is seething with active energy, even at temperature of zero Kelvin. This zero-point energy (ZPE) can be thought as an infinite number of virtual photons that popping out of the vacuum and going back in, but should a measurable effect en mass. To exam the origin of ZPE background, the interaction of matter with the ZPE can be treated on the basis of charged point particles interaction with a background of electromagnetic zero-point radiation with spectral-energy density.
Based on observation in the experiments, the following features are considered in order to understand the experimental results with electrical discharge systems.
In an electrolytic cell, the electrolyte with high conductivity and the electrochemical double layer with large layer-capacitance lead to a typical structure of the cathode potential distribution similar to the cathode drop of glow discharge in low gas pressure (Fig.1). For a compact layer the thickness of the double layer is equal to one ionic layer, across which there is a linear fall of potential. Thus, high electric field exists in some regions on the surface of the cathode
The local enhancement of the electric field on the cathode surface with the double layer is related to the protrusions and cracks similar to the tip discharge in air or in a vacuum. The current distribution depends strongly on the surface roughness and the work function of the electron emission. A high transient current density (>108A/cm2) could be expected due to enhanced field and instantaneous process.
2.3 Torsion field and their experimental manifestations
Elementary particles have the moment quantity of motion, i.e. spin. If in any substance the spins of particle have a preferable direction, then is interpreted as spin polarization of the substance. Every substance creates a torsion-field (or called spin-field or axion field) in the space when polarized by spins . The superposition of torsion field, generated by the atomic and nuclear spins of each molecule, determines the intensity of torsion field in the space surrounding each molecule. Torsion field has strong penetration ability and does not interact with the crystal lattice of substances. The torsion field created by rotation of some sort of matter is concentrated in two opposite beams propagating along the rotation axis. The intensity of torsion-field with some lower constant value can be retained for several weeks after the rotation is stopped. Such property of vortex matter has been observed recently in type II superconductors with magnetic flux line lattice . The studies of vortex matter of type II superconductors have shown a number of puzzling phenomena associated with vortex motion, including: low-frequency noise and slow voltage oscillations; a history-dependent dynamic response and memory of the direction; amplitude duration and frequency of the previously applied current.
Some behaviors of the torsion-field effect have been observed in the experiments of electrolysis regarding to so-called cold fusion, such as the gas bubble chains come out from the protrusions of the cathode surface for long time after switching off the electrolysis potential. The more surprising thing is the heat after death, which has been recorded by many labs. This phenomenon could be explained by the persistence effect of torsion-field produced by vortex dynamics of tip effect.
2.4 Experimental results in the electrochemical cell
CR-39 plastic films possessing with a high degree of optical clarity and isotope in track response have been sensitive to neutron, proton, tritium, alpha, and other charged particles, which were used to detect the products of nuclear reactions. The films of CR-39 were immersed in the NaOH electrolyte of heavy water and placed adjacent to the tips of the cathode . After 110 hours, electrolysis experiment with the applied voltage 1V and current 2mA, the solid detector was etched by 6.25 N NaOH solutions in 70℃ for 11 hours.
The photomicrograph shows the cluster of tracks with a cycle crater of 100μm in diameter and 25μm in depth [Fig.3]. According to the etching condition, the energies of the most of the particles, α is estimated roughly to be larger than 10 MeV. The typical tracks of background radiation, Th232 for example, show in [Fig.3b].
Highly concentration of the cluster of nuclear tracks could be explained by the quasar spiral model and by the crystal channeling effect [Fig.4]. Fig.3 schematically shows the nuclear reaction along the crystal channel by micro-pinch produced beams with high energy particles which may be related to tapping zero-point energy, and can penetrate deep into the electrode for several μm. The experimental results of the generation of tritium with single crystal metal of Pd show that none of the generation of tritium has been revealed by using non-single crystal electrodes . The importance of the crystal channeling effect for nuclear reactions in the electrochemical systems can be inferred.
The concentrated track cluster bombarded by collimated high-energy ion bursts can be explained by vortex dynamics model and crystal channeling effect. According to the distribution of track diameters with a track crater in Fig.3a, one can suppose that the energy range of the particles, to take alphas for example, was estimated from 11 to 15 MeV or even higher. It is not conventional for alphas of natural radioactive background and such an emission can not be explained by the presence of any radioactive impurities in the samples, because the concentrated track cluster with highly collimated particles. Those alpha-tracks had never been observed neither during CR-39 detector exposure in background runs, nor from alpha-radiation sources of trans-uranium, such as Po 212, Rn217, Pu239 in the energy range of 1.6~7.7 MeV.
To determine the spatial distribution of radiation active sites (RAS), Black-white 135 films of 27 DIN have been used to image the position of the RAS by autoradiography methods. After 1.5 years deposition in glass tube of finishing electrolysis experiments with light water NaOH electrolyte for more than 200 hours running, the patterns of RAS have been clearly formed on the films after exposure of 100 hours .
As fig.5 illustrated, highly oriented tracks can be observed by autoradiography by using normal films locally. The tracks stretching along the film surfaces confirm that the tracks were created by charged particles, electrons for example, with low energy about several KeV.
To confirm that the bright spots are created by charged particles, beta radiation by example, the magnetic field was applied on the films during exposure time. While the Pd samples exposing to the films, which were folding and wrapping up, the sample were inserted between a couple magnets. The effect of magnetic field on the traces of the charged particles has been observed, as fig.6b illustrated the broking tracks of charged particles deflected by magnetic field.
2.5 Similarity among sonoluminescence, “Bubble Nuclear Fusion”, laser-target interaction, glow discharge, and electrolysis
Some scientists of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in America reported their articles of bubbles experiments in Science. Experimental results show that the radiation lights of sonoluminescence possess three characters: short duration with picoseconds, wide continual spectrum and highly oriented thin beams. Based on those characters, vortex dynamics with axial acceleration of bubble collapse could be inferrered. Nuclear reaction with abnormal gamma radiation was observed . Dr. Claudia Eberlein describes her conclusion on sonoluminescence that only the ZPE spectrum matches the light emission spectrum, which must be ZPE phenomena . The characters with the micrometer spots and picosecond duration of sonoluminecsence indicate the instantaneous processes similar to the processes of interaction of ps laser beams with gaseous or thin film target to create ion clusters with MeV energy in the forward direction with small stereos. The effect of torsion field on nuclear reactions along the axis of vortex should be taken into consideration for the low ratio of the nuclear products of n/T due to spin polarization of reaction particles.
Fractoemission occurs when a crystalline material cracks and forms anomalously persistent glow plasma in the crack. In some experiments the luminescence has been observed to persist for hours. Lipson etc., recently reveal that there exist similarity of nuclear products for laser-target interaction, glow discharge and electrolysis. It seems that CR-39 solid track detectors have recorded alpha particles with energy range of 10-14 MeV. It is suggested to use the mechanism of torsion axis acceleration for explanation instead the mechanism of energy transfer of optical phonons.
Axion model and Primakoff effect are proposed for explanation of nuclear transmutation without noticeable gamma radiation. Many laboratories in the world have been engaged in several experiments to search for axion [18,19], light neutral pseudo scalar particles yet not to be discovered. The axion would be produced in the solar core through the Primakoff effect if its mass were a few electron volts and could be detected in the laboratory.
2.6 Enhancement of the tip effect
Based on the conception that the nuclear transmutation may be focused on the protrusion and crack region, the experimental procedure has been decided specially. To enhancement of the inferred tip effect, vertical slits were cut into the Pd cathode. The electrolytes were light or heavy water solution of 0.4 N NaOH. The electrolysis voltages were about 20V. After long electrolytic process (>200 hours), the palladium cathodes were analyzed by EDX (Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectrometer). The results showed that considerable amounts of Mg, Si, Fe, Cu, and Zn etc. were contained on the tips of Pd cathodes (Fig.7).
The tip effect to enhance excess heat has been evidentially proved by the experiments of J. Warne and J. Dash, in Portland State University with an increase the perimeter/area ratio of the cathode with artificially cutting slits [20, 21].
The contact between beads coated with a thin metallic layer or multilayered film and palladium black particles could be regarded as point-contact similar to the tip-effect .
We may say that, through the system analysis of experimental data listed above, it is expected to finally reveal the puzzles of the mechanisms of cold nuclear fusion, sonoluminescence, “bubble fusion”, antigravity, high-Tc superconductivity with pinning vortices etc. by torsion field theory [23, 24].
Nuclear products with high concentration, unidentified tracks with highly collimated lines of low energy nuclear reactions in the electrochemical systems were recorded by CR-39 solid detectors and photo-films, and localized spots with chemical alterations were observed at our laboratory. Distributions of anomalous element were detected by the X-ray Energy Dispersion Spectrometer. The yields of transmutation products are related to the current distribution on the cathode surface. The cathodes of thin wire were benefit to the generation of nuclear reactions and excess heat for electrochemical systems. Careful examination of the evolution of electrochemical double layer will lead to a good understanding of pitting corrosion with electrochemical noise, and further to recognize the anomalous excess heat and nuclear reactions. Analysis of vortex dynamics with wide range from pitting corrosion of electrochemical system, laboratory plasma, tornado, to quasar spiral model with extremely high energy cosmic rays in the center region, leads to a conclusion for that vortex dynamics creates torsion fields responding to the anomalous effects.
Sonoluminescence phenomena give an indication of enhancement of energy by 12 orders by the duration as short as picoseconds under the effect of vortex dynamics. Similar processes occur in the experiments of the electrolysis, glow discharge, and ps-laser beam interaction with targets due to tapping the ZPE. From the authors’ point of view, the evolution of double layers is of importance to understand the anomalous effect, typically on the protrusions of cathode in the cases of electrolysis. The change of space-time near the tips due to torsion field generated is expected to delivery the zero-point energy, and dynamic Casimir effect for the evolution of gas bubbles on the tips are expected to generate photons and excess heat . The yields of transmutation products created by multi-MeV alpha or proton particles are related to the current distribution on the cathode surface. The energy transfer processes of the optical phonons by atomic transitions are hard to be used for explanation of energy enhancement own to related longer time durations with nanoseconds. The cathodes of thin wire with higher surface electrical fields were benefit to the generation of nuclear reactions and excess heat for electrochemical systems. Careful examination of the evolution of electrochemical double layer will lead to a good understanding of pitting corrosion with electrochemical noise, and further to recognize the anomalous excess heat and nuclear reactions.
Thanks are due to Prof. J.O’M. Bockris, Prof. Xing Z. Li, Prof. A. Takahashi, Prof. Shang-Xiasn Jin, Dr. P. Correa and H. Fox for the helpful discussion.
This research was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (No.19455007-E).
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