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专家信息 :

江兴流,北京航空航天大学教授,博士生导师,享受政府津贴。1962-1994年曾在兰州大学现代物理系任教,研制中子发生器曾获省科学大会奖和国防科工委科技进步二等奖。作为访问学者曾在欧洲核子中心(CERN,日内瓦)从事高能加速器和脉冲粒子束研究工作2年。曾出访美国斯坦福大学、 日本大阪大学、筑波大学和加拿大麦克马斯特大学等院校, 从事极化电子束、正电子束和异常核现象等课题的研究。1994年至今,在北京航空航天大学物理系任教。

江兴流教授长期从事前沿科学研究,探索时间、空间、能量、质量和信息之间的区别与关联。他认为我们的宇宙是涡旋宇宙,也是全息宇宙,他在努力寻求异常物理现象的合理解释。十几年来,被许多媒体称为“病态科学”或“伪科学”,俗称为“冷核聚变”的异常物理现象是一个跨世纪的科学难题。为了解释这种在电化学过程中出现的异常放热和核反应现象,大部分研究者都寻求其核解释,提出了上百种理论模型。江兴流教授通过尖端效应和电场集中现象,提出了涡旋动力学导致的挠场相干提取真空零点能的理论模型,对“冷核聚变”物理现象进行了有说服力的解释。这一模型已经得到国际科技界的广泛认同。他致力于用同一理论解释声致发光,气泡核聚变,飞秒强激光打靶产生兆电子伏量级的离子束,龙卷风的巨大升力,以及涡旋类星体的超高能辐射等现象,研究成果受到广泛关注。他在《星球大战与束流武器》一书中,介绍了里根总统在1983年提出的“战略防御计划”的背景和目的,以及束流武器在“星球大战”计划中的地位和作用。书中也讨论了中性粒子束武器,X-射线激光,伽马射线激光等新科技领域。该书曾被国外相关媒体用英语全文译出。

他研究赝火花放电和粒子瞬态异常加速现象,曾获国家自然科学基金五项资助。他提出电场递增理论模型,成功地解释了赝火花放电纳秒强流脉冲粒子束的产生和加速过程;应用纳秒流脉粒子束进行材料表面改性,纳米薄膜制备,农作物辐射育种等项研究,  获国家教委科技进步3等奖。

零点能、卡西米尔效应及挠场是他目前研究领域之一。他研究暗能量和反重力现象,寻求航空航天推进原理的新的突破。在研究基于Biefeld-Brown效应的飘升机(Lifter)时,通过对其电晕放电的特点和飞行特征的分析,他提出等离子体涡旋轴向加速和挠场相干提取零电能的理论模型解释推力的产生过程,认为这是一种挠场推进现象。他的这一研究工作,  已经取得多项基金资助。这种无推进剂的推进方式,将带来航空航天推进技术的革命。

他指导研究生过程中,鼓励学生的创新精神,引导他们夺取科学技术的制高点,他指导过的研究尘现在己成为北京大学、清华大学、中国科学院、中国工程物理研究等学术单位的青年中坚力量。 

论文 :

Xing-liu Jiang, Zhi-jian Liu

Science School, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China

    Abstract: The universe is made up largely of the mysterious dark energy; one of the candidates of the dark energy is certainly zero point energy (ZPE). Sonoluminescence phenomena can be explained by the processes of tapping the ZPE, as energy extraction from vacuum. It is well known that phenomena of electrical discharge always lead to transient energy concentration temporally and spatially. Highly localized nuclear activation in electrochemical systems and other electrical discharge processes have been observed by many laboratories in the world. Based on the theory of quantum radiation observed as sonoluminescence, anisotopic behaviors of radiation products, burst character, “heat after death” of excess energy release in electrical discharge systems are considered to be interpreted by the torsion coherence of vortex dynamics with the zero-point energy induced by localized intense field emission of micro-protrusion of the cathode, and the dynamic Casimir effect of transient evolution of triple region of gas, liquid solution, and electrode protrusion. The hypothesis of vortex dynamics is compatible with all published data and explains the peculiarities of excess heat and anomalous nuclear reactions in the nonequilibrium systems.

1. Introduction

The paper entitled by “Breakthrough of this year” of Science [1], confirms that the universe is made up largely of mysterious dark energy, and has a firm age and a precise speed of expansion. Scientists are no longer trying to confirm the existence of dark energy; now they are trying to find out what it’s made of, and it tells us about the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the candidates of the dark energy is certainly zero point energy (ZPE). The experimental evidence of ZPE is: 1) the Casimir effect, 2) Van der Waals’ attraction, 3) the Lamb shift, 4) spontaneous emission, 5) diamagnetism, 6) quantum noise, 7) sonoluminescence, 8) microdegree liquid helium,and recently, 9) cosmological antigravity. Awaiting experimental verification is that inertia and gravity are also proofs of ZPE. It is inferred that the phenomena of tapping the ZPE can appear in many transient processes, such as glow discharge, vacuum electrical breakdown, fast laser-target interaction, interface effect of electrolyte and electrode surface, interface diffusion dynamics of grain boundary.

In electrolysis experiments, the freshly opened CR-39 detector chips were attached to the Pd cathode corner. These nuclear tracks can be easy distinguished from background tracks. The exposed CR-39 detectors showed the appearance of unusual diameter tracks that were not observed in background detectors.

Many laboratories in the world have observed nuclear reactions, excess heat and heat after death in electrochemical systems. T. Ohmori et al found that there is no significant difference in the amounts of excess energies between H2O and D2O electrolysis system for the plasma electrolysis [2]. A.G. Lipson et al found that during the electrolysis of thin Pd film cathode on the dielectric substrates as well as Pd-black, the alpha-particles ranging from 11.0-16.0MeV and proton near 1.7MeV are emitted [3]. The transmutation of Sr, Cs into Mo, Pr with 8 mass number and 4 atomic number increases was observed by Y. Iwamura [4]. Nuclear products with high concentration and tracks with highly collimated lines of low energy nuclear reactions in the electrochemical systems were recorded by CR-39 solid detectors and films at our laboratory [5, 6].

The mechanism of such anomalous phenomena is not being well understood according to normally accepted physics. It is supposed to use the concept of torsion field to interpret the observed phenomena, typically, the properties of axial acceleration, memory effect, and the polarized nuclear reactions with torsion effect [7]. A possible semi-quantitative explanation is given by torsion coherence with ZPE of vortex dynamics due to tip effect and transient energy concentration on the cathode surface. The vortex is the assigned workhorse of the universe, which bridges the invisible dark energy and the visible matter.

2. Phenomena in nature and at laboratories

The vortex and spiral structures are the archetype that appears at all levels of nature and laboratories, for example, spin of fundamental particles, atom structure with nuclei and orbiting electrons, vortex lattice in superconductors, superfluid, dense plasma focus, lightning, quasar etc. Transient processes produce non-equilibrium system, therefore, create torsion field with high vorticity. Femtosecond laser pulsed excitation of atomic noble gas cluster produce forward ion kinetic energies with three orders of magnitude higher than expected. In his paper entitled Condensed Matter Nuclear Science [8], Xing-zhong Li emphasized 3 key factors for such condensed matter nuclear science, they are: the deuterium (or hydrogen) flux, the multi-layer thin-film technique, and the infrared thermal imaging technology. The tip effect of the cathodes in the electrolysis cell appears to enhance those three factors to create one nonlinear system with far from the equilibrium condition.

Recent report of dark matter annihilation at the galactic center describes that the cold dark matter near the galactic center is accreted by the central black hole into a dense spike [9]. Particle dark matter annihilation makes the spike to be a compact source of photons, electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons, and neutrinos. It reminds us for that there is a similarity among pitting corrosion with electrochemical noise, laboratory plasma pinching (dense plasma focus, for example), fast laser induced ion beams [10], and quasar spiral model with high-energy cosmic rays in spiral center in spite of large dimension difference. Comparing the experimental results of electrochemical cells with excess heat and nuclear transmutation to astrophysics phenomena, it is supposed that the investigation of vortex dynamics of torsion coherence with the zero-point energy is essential for tapping the zero-point energy.

As it is predicted by quantum mechanics, the vacuum is seething with active energy, even at temperature of zero Kelvin. This zero-point energy (ZPE) can be thought as an infinite number of virtual photons that popping out of the vacuum and going back in, but should a measurable effect en mass. To exam the origin of ZPE background, the interaction of matter with the ZPE can be treated on the basis of charged point particles interaction with a background of electromagnetic zero-point radiation with spectral-energy density.

Based on observation in the experiments, the following features are considered in order to understand the experimental results with electrical discharge systems.

  In an electrolytic cell, the electrolyte with high conductivity and the electrochemical double layer with large layer-capacitance lead to a typical structure of the cathode potential distribution similar to the cathode drop of glow discharge in low gas pressure (Fig.1). For a compact layer the thickness of the double layer is equal to one ionic layer, across which there is a linear fall of potential. Thus, high electric field exists in some regions on the surface of the cathode

The local enhancement of the electric field on the cathode surface with the double layer is related to the protrusions and cracks similar to the tip discharge in air or in a vacuum. The current distribution depends strongly on the surface roughness and the work function of the electron emission. A high transient current density (>108A/cm2) could be expected due to enhanced field and instantaneous process.

2.3   Torsion field and their experimental manifestations

Elementary particles have the moment quantity of motion, i.e. spin. If in any substance the spins of particle have a preferable direction, then is interpreted as spin polarization of the substance. Every substance creates a torsion-field (or called spin-field or axion field) in the space when polarized by spins [12]. The superposition of torsion field, generated by the atomic and nuclear spins of each molecule, determines the intensity of torsion field in the space surrounding each molecule. Torsion field has strong penetration ability and does not interact with the crystal lattice of substances. The torsion field created by rotation of some sort of matter is concentrated in two opposite beams propagating along the rotation axis. The intensity of torsion-field with some lower constant value can be retained for several weeks after the rotation is stopped. Such property of vortex matter has been observed recently in type II superconductors with magnetic flux line lattice [13]. The studies of vortex matter of type II superconductors have shown a number of puzzling phenomena associated with vortex motion, including: low-frequency noise and slow voltage oscillations; a history-dependent dynamic response and memory of the direction; amplitude duration and frequency of the previously applied current.

Some behaviors of the torsion-field effect have been observed in the experiments of electrolysis regarding to so-called cold fusion, such as the gas bubble chains come out from the protrusions of the cathode surface for long time after switching off the electrolysis potential. The more surprising thing is the heat after death, which has been recorded by many labs. This phenomenon could be explained by the persistence effect of torsion-field produced by vortex dynamics of tip effect.

2.4  Experimental results in the electrochemical cell

CR-39 plastic films possessing with a high degree of optical clarity and isotope in track response have been sensitive to neutron, proton, tritium, alpha, and other charged particles, which were used to detect the products of nuclear reactions. The films of CR-39 were immersed in the NaOH electrolyte of heavy water and placed adjacent to the tips of the cathode [14]. After 110 hours, electrolysis experiment with the applied voltage 1V and current 2mA, the solid detector was etched by 6.25 N NaOH solutions in 70℃ for 11 hours.

The photomicrograph shows the cluster of tracks with a cycle crater of 100μm in diameter and 25μm in depth [Fig.3]. According to the etching condition, the energies of the most of the particles, α is estimated roughly to be larger than 10 MeV. The typical tracks of background radiation, Th232 for example, show in [Fig.3b].

Highly concentration of the cluster of nuclear tracks could be explained by the quasar spiral model and by the crystal channeling effect [Fig.4]. Fig.3 schematically shows the nuclear reaction along the crystal channel by micro-pinch produced beams with high energy particles which may be related to tapping zero-point energy, and can penetrate deep into the electrode for several μm. The experimental results of the generation of tritium with single crystal metal of Pd show that none of the generation of tritium has been revealed by using non-single crystal electrodes [15]. The importance of the crystal channeling effect for nuclear reactions in the electrochemical systems can be inferred.

The concentrated track cluster bombarded by collimated high-energy ion bursts can be explained by vortex dynamics model and crystal channeling effect. According to the distribution of track diameters with a track crater in Fig.3a, one can suppose that the energy range of the particles, to take alphas for example, was estimated from 11 to 15 MeV or even higher. It is not conventional for alphas of natural radioactive background and such an emission can not be explained by the presence of any radioactive impurities in the samples, because the concentrated track cluster with highly collimated particles. Those alpha-tracks had never been observed neither during CR-39 detector exposure in background runs, nor from alpha-radiation sources of trans-uranium, such as Po 212, Rn217, Pu239 in the energy range of 1.6~7.7 MeV.

To determine the spatial distribution of radiation active sites (RAS), Black-white 135 films of 27 DIN have been used to image the position of the RAS by autoradiography methods. After 1.5 years deposition in glass tube of finishing electrolysis experiments with light water NaOH electrolyte for more than 200 hours running, the patterns of RAS have been clearly formed on the films after exposure of 100 hours [6].

As fig.5 illustrated, highly oriented tracks can be observed by autoradiography by using normal films locally. The tracks stretching along the film surfaces confirm that the tracks were created by charged particles, electrons for example, with low energy about several KeV.

To confirm that the bright spots are created by charged particles, beta radiation by example, the magnetic field was applied on the films during exposure time. While the Pd samples exposing to the films, which were folding and wrapping up, the sample were inserted between a couple magnets. The effect of magnetic field on the traces of the charged particles has been observed, as fig.6b illustrated the broking tracks of charged particles deflected by magnetic field.

2.5  Similarity among sonoluminescence, “Bubble Nuclear Fusion”, laser-target interaction, glow discharge, and electrolysis

Some scientists of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in America reported their articles of bubbles experiments in Science. Experimental results show that the radiation lights of sonoluminescence possess three characters: short duration with picoseconds, wide continual spectrum and highly oriented thin beams. Based on those characters, vortex dynamics with axial acceleration of bubble collapse could be inferrered. Nuclear reaction with abnormal gamma radiation was observed [16]. Dr. Claudia Eberlein describes her conclusion on sonoluminescence that only the ZPE spectrum matches the light emission spectrum, which must be ZPE phenomena [17]. The characters with the micrometer spots and picosecond duration of sonoluminecsence indicate the instantaneous processes similar to the processes of interaction of ps laser beams with gaseous or thin film target to create ion clusters with MeV energy in the forward direction with small stereos. The effect of torsion field on nuclear reactions along the axis of vortex should be taken into consideration for the low ratio of the nuclear products of n/T due to spin polarization of reaction particles.

Fractoemission occurs when a crystalline material cracks and forms anomalously persistent glow plasma in the crack. In some experiments the luminescence has been observed to persist for hours. Lipson etc., recently reveal that there exist similarity of nuclear products for laser-target interaction, glow discharge and electrolysis. It seems that CR-39 solid track detectors have recorded alpha particles with energy range of 10-14 MeV. It is suggested to use the mechanism of torsion axis acceleration for explanation instead the mechanism of energy transfer of optical phonons.

Axion model and Primakoff effect are proposed for explanation of nuclear transmutation without noticeable gamma radiation. Many laboratories in the world have been engaged in several experiments to search for axion [18,19], light neutral pseudo scalar particles yet not to be discovered. The axion would be produced in the solar core through the Primakoff effect if its mass were a few electron volts and could be detected in the laboratory.

2.6  Enhancement of the tip effect

Based on the conception that the nuclear transmutation may be focused on the protrusion and crack region, the experimental procedure has been decided specially. To enhancement of the inferred tip effect, vertical slits were cut into the Pd cathode. The electrolytes were light or heavy water solution of 0.4 N NaOH. The electrolysis voltages were about 20V. After long electrolytic process (>200 hours), the palladium cathodes were analyzed by EDX (Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectrometer). The results showed that considerable amounts of Mg, Si, Fe, Cu, and Zn etc. were contained on the tips of Pd cathodes (Fig.7).

 The tip effect to enhance excess heat has been evidentially proved by the experiments of J. Warne and J. Dash, in Portland State University with an increase the perimeter/area ratio of the cathode with artificially cutting slits [20, 21].

The contact between beads coated with a thin metallic layer or multilayered film and palladium black particles could be regarded as point-contact similar to the tip-effect [22].

We may say that, through the system analysis of experimental data listed above, it is expected to finally reveal the puzzles of the mechanisms of cold nuclear fusion, sonoluminescence, “bubble fusion”, antigravity, high-Tc superconductivity with pinning vortices etc. by torsion field theory [23, 24].

3.  Conclusion

Nuclear products with high concentration, unidentified tracks with highly collimated lines of low energy nuclear reactions in the electrochemical systems were recorded by CR-39 solid detectors and photo-films, and localized spots with chemical alterations were observed at our laboratory. Distributions of anomalous element were detected by the X-ray Energy Dispersion Spectrometer. The yields of transmutation products are related to the current distribution on the cathode surface. The cathodes of thin wire were benefit to the generation of nuclear reactions and excess heat for electrochemical systems. Careful examination of the evolution of electrochemical double layer will lead to a good understanding of pitting corrosion with electrochemical noise, and further to recognize the anomalous excess heat and nuclear reactions. Analysis of vortex dynamics with wide range from pitting corrosion of electrochemical system, laboratory plasma, tornado, to quasar spiral model with extremely high energy cosmic rays in the center region, leads to a conclusion for that vortex dynamics creates torsion fields responding to the anomalous effects.

Sonoluminescence phenomena give an indication of enhancement of energy by 12 orders by the duration as short as picoseconds under the effect of vortex dynamics.  Similar processes occur in the experiments of the electrolysis, glow discharge, and ps-laser beam interaction with targets due to tapping the ZPE. From the authors’ point of view, the evolution of double layers is of importance to understand the anomalous effect, typically on the protrusions of cathode in the cases of electrolysis. The change of space-time near the tips due to torsion field generated is expected to delivery the zero-point energy, and dynamic Casimir effect for the evolution of gas bubbles on the tips are expected to generate photons and excess heat [5]. The yields of transmutation products created by multi-MeV alpha or proton particles are related to the current distribution on the cathode surface. The energy transfer processes of the optical phonons by atomic transitions are hard to be used for explanation of energy enhancement own to related longer time durations with nanoseconds. The cathodes of thin wire with higher surface electrical fields were benefit to the generation of nuclear reactions and excess heat for electrochemical systems. Careful examination of the evolution of electrochemical double layer will lead to a good understanding of pitting corrosion with electrochemical noise, and further to recognize the anomalous excess heat and nuclear reactions.

Acknowledgments

Thanks are due to Prof. J.O’M. Bockris, Prof. Xing Z. Li, Prof. A. Takahashi, Prof. Shang-Xiasn Jin, Dr. P. Correa and H. Fox for the helpful discussion.

This research was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (No.19455007-E).

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